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What are the different test items for power transformers and distribution transformers

Tester performance is crucial when assessing the reliability and efficiency of power transformers and distribution transformers, each subjected to specific tests tailored to their roles in the electrical grid. Power transformers, dealing with high voltages and capacities, undergo rigorous assessments like lightning impulse tests and short-circuit withstand tests to ensure durability under extreme conditions. Conversely, distribution transformers, used for medium to low voltage applications, are tested for temperature rise, sound levels, and enclosure protection to verify their operational efficiency and safety. Both types share fundamental tests such as insulation resistance and DC resistance evaluations to verify their basic electrical properties.

What is power transformer and distribution transformer?

Power Transformer

Power transformers are typically used for high voltage and high-capacity power transmission, with rated voltages reaching hundreds of kilovolts and capacities reaching hundreds of megavolt-amperes (MVA). Their high efficiency design minimizes energy loss during transmission. Due to the need to handle high voltages and large currents, power transformers have a complex structure with robust insulation and cooling systems. They are mainly used to transmit power from power plants to distribution networks or other substations, with minimal load variation, playing a role in stepping up and stepping down voltage over long distances to reduce transmission losses.

Distribution Transformer

Distribution transformers are generally used for medium to low voltage applications (such as 11kV, 33kV) with smaller capacities (ranging from tens to thousands of kVA). They are designed to accommodate high load variations, suitable for supplying power to end users such as homes, shops, and factories. Compared to power transformers, distribution transformers have a simpler structure, focusing on a balance between cost and efficiency. They primarily function to deliver electricity from distribution networks to end users, commonly found in residential, commercial, and industrial areas, serving the purpose of stepping down and distributing power.

Importance of Installation, Commissioning, and Maintenance Testing

Installation, commissioning, and maintenance testing are crucial for ensuring the safe, reliable, and efficient operation of transformers. Proper installation and commissioning can prevent initial failures and ensure that the transformer meets its expected performance. Regular maintenance and testing can detect and prevent potential issues, extend the equipment's lifespan, and reduce downtime and repair costs.

Testing Projects for Power Transformers and Distribution Transformers

Common Tests

  1. Insulation Resistance Test: Checks the insulation condition to ensure there are no insulation failures.
  2. DC Resistance Test: Measures the DC resistance of the windings to ensure the windings and connections are in good condition.
  3. Turns Ratio Test: Verifies that the transformer's turns ratio matches the design specifications.
  4. AC Withstand Voltage Test: Assesses the insulation performance of the transformer under high voltage conditions.
  5. No-Load Loss and No-Load Current Test: Evaluates the transformer's losses when it is not under load.
  6. Load Loss and Impedance Voltage Test: Measures the transformer's losses and impedance voltage under load conditions.
  7. Partial Discharge Test: Detects partial discharges in the transformer's insulation system.
  8. Insulating Oil Test: Assesses the quality of the insulating oil, including water content and dielectric strength.

Tests Specific to Power Transformers

  1. Lightning Impulse Test (Impulse Withstand Test): Simulates the transformer's performance under lightning conditions to ensure it can withstand lightning surges.
  2. Power Frequency Induced Voltage Test: High-frequency induced voltage test (usually twice the power frequency voltage) to test the transformer's insulation performance.
  3. Short-Circuit Withstand Test: Verifies the mechanical and electrical performance of the transformer under short-circuit conditions.
  4. Temperature Rise Test: Measures the temperature rise of the transformer under rated load to ensure it remains within permissible limits.
  5. Vibration and Noise Test: Evaluates the levels of vibration and noise produced by the transformer during operation.
  6. Magnetic Material Test: Assesses the magnetic properties of the core materials.

Tests Specific to Distribution Transformers

  1. Temperature Rise Test: Measures the temperature rise of the windings and oil under rated load conditions.
  2. Sound Level Test: Evaluates the noise levels produced by the transformer during operation to ensure compliance with environmental noise standards.
  3. Enclosure Protection Test: Tests the protective performance of the transformer's enclosure (e.g., waterproof and dustproof levels).
  4. Short-Circuit Test: Tests the performance of the distribution transformer under short-circuit conditions for a short duration.

These testing projects not only ensure that transformers operate safely and reliably after initial installation and commissioning but also help prevent potential issues through regular maintenance and testing, thereby extending the transformer's service life.

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